Friday, May 22, 2020
Breast Implants, Breast Augmentation, and American Culture Breast augmentation is rapidly becoming a common procedure among women in the United States. Shows detailing the surgery on TV station such as MTV and VH1 show mothers and their daughters getting implants together and teenage girls thrilled with their new 34-D chests. What most of these shows dont mention are the possible risks and painful recovery that come with the procedure. That breast implants are becoming more and more an accepted part of popular culture raises several questions. Are implants as safe and easy as they seem? Are women getting implants because they expect them to radically change their lives? More importantly, does our culture really believe that breastÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Despite all of this, many women say that they were not given adequate information about the risks associated with breast implants before undergoing the surgery ((4)). The recent push for approval of silicone implants is particularly problematic. Doctors and patients often prefer the silicone implants because they more closely mimic the look and feel of breast tissue ((1)). Although there is little evidence supporting the claims made against silicone breast implants in the 1980s (which said that they contributed to autoimmune and connective tissue disorders), it can be said that silicone implants cause more problems than saline implants. When a saline implant ruptures, it deflates almost immediately, creating visible evidence of the problem ((1)). Silicone implants may show symptoms of rupturing, but many women have a silent rupture in which the scar tissue around the implant holds in the saline gel. Since these women have no symptoms, the only way to identify the rupture is through MRI ((5)). What makes this particularly alarming is that the long term effects of having the silicone gel sitting indirect contact with scar and breast tissue is unknow n, which is one of the reasons that the chairman of the FDA advisory panel, which voted in favor of approving silicone implants, asked that the FDA ignore the panels advice ((6)). Long term safety of silicone implants has simply not been demonstrated by any studies presented to the FDA, yet many in theShow MoreRelatedTeenagers and the Plastic Surgery Epidemic Essay1090 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Today, an overwhelming number of American teenagers choose to alter their body in order to fit the unrealistic standard of physical attractiveness created by our beauty-obsessed culture. Teens feel an immense amount of pressure to look Ã¢â¬Å"beautifulÃ¢â¬ from the media, peers and even parents. Teenagers are going to extreme lengths to reach this physical perfection, but when it comes down to it, just how far is too far? The numbers of teens going through with plastic surgery is startlingRead MoreTypes Of Cosmetic Surgery And How They Are Affected By Body Image1862 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageshistorical past, plastic surgery is a growing multi-billion industry.Ã¢â¬ Breast augmentation surgery and Botox has been the most popular surgery for decades. It was stated in TIME magazine that, Ã¢â¬Å"breast implants remain the top cosmetic surgical procedure and Botox remained the top minimally invasive procedureÃ¢â¬ (Alexandra Sifferlin). Breast augmentation surgery has been used to either enhance or take away the size and shape of a femaleÃ¢â¬â¢s breast. For many years, society believed that more of a natural shapeRead MoreIs Cosmetic Surgery Worth The Risk?1304 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesphysical appearance, while plastic surgery is more about reconstruction of defects in order to get the normal functions. According to the American Board Of Cosmetic Surgery, 2007, defines cosmetic surgery as Ã¢â¬Å"A subspecialty of medicine and surgery that uniquely restricts itself to the enhancement of appearance through surgical and medical techniqueÃ¢â¬ (Scott). Moreover American Board of Cosmetic Surgery was reported that By 2011 United States was the top f ive countries for aesthetic plastic surgery with theRead MoreHow Media Has Become A Big Influence For Teenage Cosmetic Surgeries1757 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesage or younger, and almost 39,000 were surgical procedures such as nose reshaping, breast lifts, breast augmentation, liposuction, and tummy tucks.Ã¢â¬ Among todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, outside beauty and staying forever young are the newest trends. Today, a devastating amount of American teenagers choose to alter their body in order to fit the unrealistic standard of physical attractiveness created by our beauty-obsessed culture. Media has become a big influence for teenage cosmetic surgeries. Magazines, socialRead MoreThe Cosmetic Surgery Industry Is No Different1736 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMakeover, the general public is inundated with images promoting the use of cosmetic surgery to achieve the societal view of what is beautiful. The stereotypical definition of beauty is vast, but has several common factors, such as: full lips, l arge breasts, small waists, and curvy hips. For most women, these traits do not come naturally, therefore women feel obligated to spend thousands of dollars and risk their health to undergo cosmetic procedures. Due to the influx of those seeking cosmetic surgeryRead MoreThe Pros and Cons of Plastic Surgery Essay723 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesSociety today has brain washed both men and women in believing that considered beautiful one must look like models shown on magazine, television and in movies. This causes people to undergo plastic surgery. According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, plastic surgery was first used in India as early as 800 B.C. Not only does it enhance self-image but also self concept. Reconstructive ways has also been done nearly more to children than adults. Plastic surgerys categorized as either cosmeticRead MorePlastic Surgery: Why Is so Popular? Essay1307 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesgroup which is compose by chin surgery, ear surgery, facial implants, and nose surgery. Then there is the Facial Rejuvenation surgeries such as, brow lift, eyelid surgery, and facelift surgery. There is also the Fat Reduction category, which is composed basically by liposuction procedures; sometimes supported by an ultrasound system. Finally, there is the Breast category, which consists of breast augmentation, breast reduction, and breast lift surgeries . Both man and women can perform most of theseRead MoreWhy The World Want Plastic Surgery1480 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbranches. There is cosmetic surgery, people use it to improve there appearance while on the other side reconstructive surgery treats serious health issues. When you hear the words Ã¢â¬Å"plastic surgeryÃ¢â¬ you thing about nose jobs, face lifting and breast implants but most people forget that there are also reconstructive surgery. Reconstructive surgery can be applied to various problems. Issues which are noticed from the present of birth are cleft lip and palat, birthmarks, craniosytosis (a rare problemRead MoreWhy Cosmetic Surgery Should Be Limited1299 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthem for safety reasons. Ã¢â¬Å"The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) is the world s largest organization of board-certified plastic surgeons. Representing more than 7,000 Member Surgeons, the Society is recognized as a leading authority and information source on aesthetic and reconstructive plastic surgeryÃ¢â¬ (14.6 Million Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Procedures Performed in 2012). Cosmetic surgery is the reshaping of body parts through surgical procedures such as breast reduction or enlargement, faceliftRead MoreCosmetic Surgery : Life Or Image More Valuable?1393 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthem for safety reasons. Ã¢â¬Å"The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) is the world s largest organization of board-certified plastic surgeons. Representing more than 7,000 Member Surgeons, the Society is recognized as a leading authority and information source on aesthetic and reconstructive plastic surgery.Ã¢â¬ (14.6 Million Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Procedures Performed in 2012) Cosmetic surgery is the reshaping of body parts through surgical procedures such as breast reduction or enlargement, facelift
Saturday, May 9, 2020
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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(36) " discussed further in section four\." The world has seen the growth of tourism increase dramatically in the past fifty years and with this growth comes a concern for the cultural and environmental impacts associated with it. Ecotourism is the new breed of tourism based around the concept of nature and cultural appreciation, espoused by many to bring significant economic benefits to the host countries as well as being a sustainable alternative to mass tourism. The aim of this paper is to review the literature that focuses on the environmental impacts of ecotourism. We will write a custom essay sample on Effective Environmental Impact Management through Ecotourism or any similar topic only for you Order Now This will be achieved through the discussion of five key areas. First, the multitude of definitions surrounding ecotourism will be examined with a view to identifying the core concepts. Second, the key players involved in the ecotourism industry will be identified. Third, the positive and negative impacts associated with ecotourism will be discussed. Fourth, the contributing factors that determine the level of environmental impact. Fifth, the future of ecotourism and how it can be managed. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for future research. World tourism is growing in terms of number of travellers as well as in economic expansion (World Tourism Organisation (W. T. O), 1997) and as the worlds largest industry (Nelson, 1993) it earns approximately $US 2. 5 trillion annually (Dearden, 1993). Tourism takes on many different guises and nature-tourism is one of these, which, in itÃ¢â¬â¢s most sustainable form has been labelled ecotourism. Within the worldwide tourism industry ecotourism is one of the fastest growing sectors (Eagles, 1995) and according to a 2001 W. T. O and United Nations Environment Programme study ecotourism may represent between two and four percent of global tourism (W. T. O, 1997). Although this is a relatively small percentage share it is not the volume that is significant but the fact that it is a type of tourism that attempts to minimise the negative effects of traditional mass tourism, be these economic, social or environmental (Doan, 2000). There has been a proliferation of ecotourism-related articles in professional journals since the late 1980s (Sirakaya, 1999) and due to the expansive nature of ecotourism the literature covers a multitude of topics. It is for this reason that for the purpose of this paper I have focused on the journals that are concerned particularly with the environmental impacts of ecotourism. These journals take the form of definition articles (Edwards, 1998; Sirakaya, 1999; Fennel, 2000), articles on particular case studies (Burton, 1998; Doan, 2000; Thomlinson, 1996; Obua, 1997; Nianyong, 2001; Chin, 2000), and articles on impact related aspects from more of a resource point of view (Beaumont, 2001; Tyler, 1999; Acott, 1998). Section 1: Defining the Concept of Ecotourism Before even beginning to identify what environmental impacts ecotourism is having on the environment it is important to clarify the concept of what it is. The problems of defining ecotourism have been debated at length (Blamey, 1997), and there is a tremendous amount of literature exploring the definitions of ecotourism. It can be observed that Ceballos-Lascurain (1983) was one of the first people to provide a working definition (Sirakaya, 1999; Thomlinson, 1996; Edwards, 1998; Fennel, 2001). His definition was normative and he suggested that ecotourism incorporates the notions of travelling to relatively untouched natural areas with the objective of enjoying and admiring the areaÃ¢â¬â¢s natural and cultural manifestations. From that period on the definitions came to include the notion of ecological sustainability and that ecotourism should provide economic benefits for local people, as well as provide funds for conservation of the visited areas (Boo, 1990; Lindberg and Hawkins, 1993; Tyler, 1996). Researchers from the field of biological research tend to focus mainly on the environmental aspects of the definition (Tyler, 1999; Nianyong, 2001; Acott et al. , 1998) when using the term ecotourism in their research papers. While others have not included a definition of what they consider ecotourism to stand for (Obua, 1997; Burton, 1998), suggesting that people reading articles in the tourism journals are assumed to have a comprehensive understanding of what the term ecotourism means. In the recent years research focusing on the definitions of ecotourism have been performed through content analysis of pre-existing definitions, one such being by Sirakaya (1999) who looked at it from a supply side view and identified whether tour-operators in the AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s viewed themselves in fit with their own ecotourism definitions and policies. These definitions took a normative and positive viewpoint that can also be seen in Fennels (2001) article. He also used a content analysis method and incorporated the concept of definition alterations over time as well as differentiating between definitions provided by government and individuals (researchers) mainly in the Americas. Perhaps the most exhaustive study of definitions was undertaken by Edwards et al (1998), who conducted a content analysis of the ecotourism policies employed by the government agencies of all the countries in the AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s. All these content analyses provide a fresh insight into the definition of ecotourism although they are biased due to the fact that they use very few definitions provided by researchers and governments outside of the AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s. A commonly cited definition that I think encapsulates the main findings of the three content analysis studies previously described (Sirakaya, 1999; Fennels, 2001; Edwards et al. , 1998) is one that originated from the Ecotourism Society (1993), and for the purpose of this review is the definition I shall be using. It is:- Purposeful travel to natural areas to understand the cultural and natural history of the environment, taking care not to alter the integrity of the ecosystem, while producing opportunities that make the conservation of natural resources beneficial to local citizens. Section 2: Identification of the Key Players in the Ecotourism Industry In this section I will identify four different groups who have key roles to play in the ecotourism industry; the communities residing in the host ecotourism country/area, the tourists, the tour operators, and the government agencies. All of the above groups are interconnected and affect each other and in turn effect the environmental impact on ecotourism destinations, this will be discussed further in section four. You read "Effective Environmental Impact Management through Ecotourism" in category "Papers" The literature only provides very fleeting references into the nature of the communities that are affected by ecotourism. The main way that local communities would appear to get involved in the ecotourism industry is through being employed in the local tourist activities. Be it through building accommodation (Obua, 1997), guiding (Chin et al. , 2000), or by being involved in local conservation projects (Nianyong, 2001). Yet even descriptions of these activities are very minimal and so will not be addressed further in this review. On a general level of description about the tourist group the authors tend to refer to them as eco-tourists (Beumont, 2001; Acott, 1998), and they are observed to be mainly westerners (Chin et al. , 2000). It is agreed that all eco-tourists have the underlying wish to travel to natural areas with a view to appreciating the unspoilt environment (Tyler, 1999; Beumont, 2001; Acott, 1998) and within this concept is the discussion in the literature concerning the Ã¢â¬ËspectrumÃ¢â¬â¢ of nature based tourists (Burton, 1998). Beumont (2001) identified a range of different types of nature based travellers by suggesting that each eco-tourist is unique in terms of their knowledge of the nature and attitude towards it. This idea can be seen in a slightly different guise in AcottÃ¢â¬â¢s (1998) research which takes a much more phenomenological approach and segments eco-tourists into Ã¢â¬ËshallowÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËdeepÃ¢â¬â¢ groups. Shallow eco-tourists are of an anthropocentric frame of mind in that they view humans as separate from nature and that nature is an instrument that serves human ends. Ã¢â¬ËDeepÃ¢â¬â¢ eco-tourists adopt a much more holistic view of the world and view humans to be intrinsically linked with the environment. Burton (1998) identifies these differing types as Ã¢â¬ËcasualÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËdedicatedÃ¢â¬â¢ eco-tourists with Ã¢â¬ËdedicatedÃ¢â¬â¢ ones having higher expectations in terms of the quality of the ecotourism experience. Eco-tourism as a product is delivered by the ecotour operators and companies (Thomlinson, 1996). They characteristically have the parent business located in the base country (predominantly western) who prepare nature tour packages and then co-ordinate with the other half of their business in the destination country (Higgins, 1996). The majority are small-scale operations (Blamey, 1995; McArthur, 1994). This enables the operators to practice environmentally responsible practices and to ensure high quality experiences for the tourists (Burton 1998; Thomlinson, 1996). In compliance with the definition of ecotourism ecotour operators ideally should act in an environmentally responsible manner yet many researchers suggest that they are masquerading as ecotour companies and use the term ecotourism as a marketing tool (Nianyong, 2001; Thomlinson, 1996; Beaumont, 2001; Burton, 1998). With respect to government agencies involvement and attitudes towards ecotourism the content analysis study conducted by Edwards et al. 1998) provides the most comprehensive insight into their agendaÃ¢â¬â¢s. As well as this empirical study the literature identifies them as playing an important role in the management of the ecotourism industry with them being the creators of the policies which control the exploitation of natural areas (Nianyong, 2001; Chin et al. , 2000; Beaumont, 2001; Burton, 1998). This is especially true when the ecotourism activities take place in national parks as designated by governments (Obua, 1997; Nianyong, 2001; Woodward, 1996). The influence they have on environmental impact management will be discussed further in section 4. Section 3: The Positive and Negative Environmental Impacts. The positive environmental impacts are essentially indirect benefits that are derived from educating tourists on environmental issues, and providing economic benefits for the destination country/area to aid in conservation of their natural resources. With respect to issue of education Beumont (1998) cites the writings of Boo (1991) and Goudberg et al. 1991) who argue that ecotourism provides environmental education or interpretation for participants which in turn creates awareness and understanding of the natural environment therefore creating support for conservation. This idea is supported by Chin et al. (2000: 31) whose qualitative study based around a questionnaire completed by 210 eco-tourists who visited Bako national park in Borneo. It showed that Ã¢â¬Å"90% of respondents indicated the importance of learning about nature as part of their experience, suggesting that visitors to Bako would be highly receptive to educational strategies. It is the ecotour operators who are essentially the main providers of the environmental education and Blamey (1995) notes that ecotour operators in Australia primarily set up their businesses because of their personal interest in the environment. Economic benefits derived from ecotourism and that positively impact the environment take a number of forms. Boo (1990) argues that ecotourism can stimulate the economy and in turn generate direct funding for conservation. An example of this is where Doan (2000) cites Wells (1993) who talks about mountaineering fees that are being used for the cleanup of Sagmarth National Park in Nepal, and has led to increased ecological quality. An indirect environmental benefit derived from ecotourism is that it provides an alternative to more damaging types of industry (Thomlinson, 1996). This can be seen in a case study (Obua, 1997) where forest ecotourism was introduced in the Kibale National Park as a sustainable industry instead of ruining the environment through logging. The definition provided by the Ecotourism Society suggests that ecotourism should not alter the integrity of the ecosystem, yet as Tyler and Dangerfield (1999) argue almost any level of human exploitation has impacts on an ecosystem. His qualitative research took the viewpoint of resource management, the resource being the ecosystems that are exploited by ecotourism, and points out that most of the ecosytems that are visited have developed independently of human interaction and have to adapt rapidly to deal with the human incursion, depending on the level of human disturbance. Tyler (1999) does point out that marine environments are particularly susceptible to the development of ecotourism, a topic researched at length by Mason (1998) who, through the use of a qualitative research tool assessed the potential effects on two marine environments and found that predominantly negative biophysical effects occurred due to development of ecotourism. A study on forest degradation due to ecotourism (Obua, 1997) was the only quantitative research on the subject of environmental impact that was found in the literature. Perhaps an area for future research? Other environmental impacts of ecotourism outlined in the literature take the form of general comments about how animal behaviour is disrupted with particular reference to altered eating habits (Burger, 1998; Tyler, 1999; Thomlinson, 1996). Pollution created in the forms of rubbish as well as water and vehicle pollution which is also mentioned in the literature (Mason, 1998; Chin et al. , 2000; Nianyong, 2001) as well as damage done to vegetation due to trampling. An indirect environmental impact that is discussed in some depth by Burton (1998) and to a lesser extent Beaumont (2001) is the fact that most eco-tourists have the expectation of appreciating the natural environment without the presence of large numbers of people. This has led to the exploitation of previously untouched area in an attempt to provide ecotourists with quality experiences. Section 4: Determining the level of Environmental Impact In the literature one of the biggest debates is whether eco-tourism leads to mass-tourism and itÃ¢â¬â¢s associated environmental problems (Beaumont, 2001; Doan, 2000; Mason, 1998; Obua, 1997). Even if it does not lead to fully-fledged mass-tourism it agreed throughout the literature that an increase in visitors to sensitive natural environments causes an increase in associated environmental impacts. Discussion on at what point the number of tourists is too much for a destination focuses on the concept of carrying capacity (Doan, 2000; Thomlinson, 1996). This is the theoretical limit to the number of tourists that an area can sustain without deleterious effects (Boo, 1990). They also refer to ButlerÃ¢â¬â¢s life cycle model and Burton (1998) cites ThomlinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s (1996) empirical evidence, and argues that once the number of tourists reach a certain level then ecotourism turns into mass-tourism. So as described, the number of tourists converging on a destination is a key factor on the level of environmental impact, yet what factors contribute to the differing numbers of ecotourists? A common idea in the literature is the attitudes of the governing bodies towards the development of ecotourism sites (Thomlinson, 1996; Obua, 1997; Chin et al. 2000; Nianyong, 2001). A common theme is that governments have been tempted by the prospect of making a Ã¢â¬Ëquick buckÃ¢â¬â¢, and therefore do not put in place policies limiting exploitation of their countries natural resources, and policies limiting numbers of tourists. Although one country that has minimised environmental impacts through limiting the number of western tourists is Bhutan (Brunet, 2001), yet not totally as they still allow an unlimited number of Indians to cross their borders, a policy controlled by the government! Nianyong (2001) also illustrates that governments should be instrumental in helping to develop environmentally responsible policies within their country as well as providing funds for research. Yet in the case of NianyongsÃ¢â¬â¢ research which was a survey conducted in China, he points out that a lot of ecotourism destinations are in the third world, this is can be seen in the way that most of the case studies on ecotourism are based in the third world. These host countries canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to provide funds for appropriate ecotourism development, a point corroborated by Chin et al. 2000) whose study was based in Malaysia. Yet paradoxically authorities were responsible for increasing the number of eco-tourists to the Bako national park in 1988 through tourism promotion. Chin et al. (2000) suggests that this was driven by economic interests. The next area of discussion focuses on how eco-tour operators affect the level of environmental impact that ecotourism destinations experienc e. As previously mentioned it is suggested that eco-tour operators are simply exploiting the concept of ecotourism by using it as a marketing tool. Burton (1998) cites a number of researchers who suggest that surveys indicate that a large number of eco-tour operators cannot be considered to act in an environmentally responsible manner (Botrill and Pearce, 1995; Weiler, 1992; Holden Kealy, 1996; Jones, 1993). This obviously has serious implications for the level of environmental impact and in Belize supposedly ecotourism companies have destroyed large swaths of mangrove swamps in order to develop luxury bungalows (Thomlinson, 1996). Also although most eco-tour operators are small businesses there are so many of them they can negatively impact the environment through a cumulative effect (Thomlinson, 1996; Beaumont, 2001). As illustrated the number of ecotourists descending upon an area is one of the main factors determining the level of environmental impact Yet there are references in the literature that point out that it is the innate attitude of the actual eco-tourist towards pro-environmental causes that plays an important part in the level of environmental impact that ecotourism destinations experience (Acott, 1998; Chin et al. 2000; Beaumont, 2001). Acott (1998) who discusses ecotourism in terms of Ã¢â¬ËshallowÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËdeepÃ¢â¬â¢ differentiates different types of eco-tourists in terms of the level to what extent they pursue environmentally sustainable lifestyles. He uses the example of a low impact eco-traveller who stays in very basic accommodation and pursues a minimal impact experience comp ared to a large group of bird watchers staying in a luxury hotel with the expectation of a westernised ecotourism experience. Section 5: The Future of Ecotourism The focus of this section is to identify the numerous variables correlated with the success of ecotourism as a sustainable option for the future, and the recommendations documented in the literature to ensure the long-term success of ecotourism. As it is recognised that large numbers of tourists have detrimental affects on the environment, many of the researchers talk about limiting visitor numbers (Burton, 1998; Thomlinson, 1996; Nianyong, 2001; Chin et al. 2000). Yet how many is too many? Tyler (1999) and to a lesser extent Doan (2000) suggest that the resource base (the ecotourism destination) as an ecosystem needs to be considered primarily, and to define saleable products that will have an absorbable impact. In relation to actually controlling the number of visitors it is generally agreed that government tourism agencies are ones who have the power to implement these controls. Thomlinson (1996) suggests that infrastructure should be limited thus discouraging large scale tours, this was actually achieved in Bako National Park Malaysia, whereby the authorities decided not to build a main road into the park and only allow tourists access to the park via river boats. Nianyong (2001) also suggests that operators wishing to establish ecotourism businesses in national parks should have to obtain licenses thereby maintaining the integrity of the industry. There are also suggestions that as ecotourism is after all a business, causing smaller eco-tour operators (who have less of an impact on the evironment) being forced out of the market by larger operators. These larger operators are seen to be the leading edge of mass tourism and achieve greater profits through economies of scale (Burton, 1998, Thomlinson, 1996). Therefore they argue that government agencies need to promote and perhaps subsidise the smaller operatives and restrict the growth of larger operators. Yet the tension that exists with governments, especially in third world countries, is that they lack funds and by limiting the number tourists they are limiting the economic benefits provided by the ecotourism industry. These government agencies have to realise that although increase in visitor numbers means greater profits, eco-tourists want to experience nature without being crowded by other humans (Burton, 1998). Boo (1990: 96) noted in reference to the environmental effects of ecotourism Ã¢â¬Ëthat tourism, if not managed properly, can destroy tourismÃ¢â¬â¢. The issue of educating eco-tourists is the other fundamental tool that can be used in maintaining the sustainability of ecotourism. By creating positive attitudes towards environmental preservation amongst tourists it fosters awareness about the future implications of ecotourism amongst the very people who are the consumers of the product, and who directly impact the environment they are visiting. Fortunately according to SirakayaÃ¢â¬â¢s (1999) research Ã¢â¬Ëaccording to tour operators, ecotourism also includes involvement in after travel to inspire personal responsibilityÃ¢â¬â¢. The raises the point addressed at length by Beaumont (2001) that it is the responsibility of the eco-tour operators to provide quality education to the tourists. Nianyong (2001) also points out that local communities in the host destination need to be educated and involved and encouraged to participate in environmental conservation. A point only briefly touched upon in other articles. Section 6: Conlusion Five lines of enquiry were discussed, each focusing on different aspects. However, these aspects are highly interconnected. The first section outlined how research into the definitions of ecotourism had mainly been qualitative. Recently however the research has tended to be functionalist in nature with quantitative studies employing content analysis techniques as a means to attempt to settle the definition debate. I observed definite core themes in the research yet felt as did the most recent researchers did that pinpointing an exact definition was act of futility, due to the global nature of ecotourism. Yet the definition I used at the bottom of section 1 provided the basis of reference for the duration of the review. In the second and third section the research findings illustrated the interconnectedness of the key players in the ecotourism industry and the effects they are having as a whole on the environment. The articles that were found to provide the best insight into the detailed effects of what environmental impacts ecotourism has on host countries were found in Case Study articles, where various regions were examined in depth. Although a problem with these case studies was that they were slightly limited in that they all examined ecotourism activities in national parks. I would suggest future research that focuses on areas that are not national parks, but which do accommodate ecotourism, one such place being Kodaikanal in southern India, a place where as an ecotourist myself, inspired this review. There was also a distinct lack of detailed quantitative research of a geographical nature into environmental impacts, yet research of this nature is inherently difficult due to the complex nature of ecosystems. Section four and five viewed ecotourism and itÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to minimise environmental damage in the context of Ã¢â¬Ëthe bigger pictureÃ¢â¬â¢ by pulling together the previous sections. The literature acknowledged that ecotourism is a business after all and that market forces as with nearly everything in this world are driving factors behind whether ecotourism is a success or not in the future. Yet it can be seen just through observing the recent initiation of new journals such as the Journal of Sustainable Tourism that there is concern for the well-being the environment, especially with the dramatic annual growth of tourism. Therefore research into the ecotourism industry will almost certainly continue apace. This is fortunate as Tyler (1999) points out there are a multitude of dimensions and paradigms associated with ecotourism research, ranging from philosophy to ecological economics. To conclude, the future of ecotourism is an uncertain one. Negative environmental impacts have definitely been observed, although in other areas where effective policies have been implemented the environment has apparently not suffered and the sustainability of the industry is assured. There is evidence that supports the theory that ecotourism leads to mass tourism and itÃ¢â¬â¢s associated problems. Yet, I would observe that the commonality amongst all these issues is that geographical location causes the differing variables associated with ecotourism development and is the deciding factor as to whether ecotourism can be implemented successfully to protect the environment. This is where further research should be directed enabling future ecotourism planners to have a reference point according to their global location. How to cite Effective Environmental Impact Management through Ecotourism, Papers
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
Rediscovering Carla Rediscovering Carla Carla is the oldest of the four Garcia Girls. Being the oldest she is the one that is initiated into America first. In addition, due to the fact that she is the oldest she is the one that goes throught the initiation as the most impressionable. Furthermore, since Carla is the oldest she is forced to blend quickest because of lack of time till adolecense Carla grew up as a wealthy Dominican child who was protected and nurtured. However, when she enters America she is a small fish in a big pond and gets a taste of what it is like to live as the underprivileged half, the half that tended to her needs in the old country, the half that she is now a member of. When She enters America she learns that she is on the lower end of the social order, a realization that helps her to grow and become more self reliant and practical. Furthermore, upon entering America Carla enters a Catholic school and is tortured by a group of pale faced white children who derive great pleasure from publicly humiliating her and destroying her self esteem by hurling slurs like immigrant and spic at her. Overall however as a result she grows through this hatred and is enlightened to the prejudice in America. Carla and her family upon entering America encounter a very different economic situation. A rich Dominican girl enters the United States as an immigrant where her family cannot even make enough money to buy her the frivolous purchase of red sneakers. Through the penny pitching Carla develops a frugal side and learns that she will have to be a self made Success here in this new exposed world she has entered. For example in the story American surprise she is presented with a modern piggy bank and showed how to save for her future. Furthermore, Carla, still being young, is still partial to child like tendencies and when the mother preps The Four Girls for there dinner with the aristocratic Fannings she says No elbows No cokes only Milk or ice water and I make your orders is that clear? However, when Carla is bold enough to request that no fish be ordered because it gives her an upset stomach, she is shunned and does not receive a response to her question. These mandatory Behavior rules help Carla to mature, because at a young age she learns a very young age, something will overall accelerate her intellectual development, which life is not fair, and you dont always get what you want. Experiences such as these help Carla to grow through her difficult times and strengthens her for later in life. In Conclusion, through hard times and experiences, Carla grows and develops a new perspective on the world. For instance, making the transition from aristocracy in the Dominican to the immigrant class in America teaches her to see the universal perspective of things such as, that regardless of race and class everyone has problems to deal with. This realization most likely entices her desire to become a therapist Carla becoming a therapist gives her a road to success and motivates her to succeed like her father inevitably will. In summary, through class change and economic diversity Carla develops mentally, emotionally and worldly and through this development she gains a universal perspective and an optimistic outlook on life. Furthermore this development keeps her focused and better off than her sisters. English Essays
Friday, March 20, 2020
buy custom Decision Making Models essay Organizational decision making is a process that transpires particularly if value creation for the stakeholders is part of the problem solving solution. There are a series of decisions that are made by manager, some of which including both programmed and non-programmed decisions. Decisions that are developed through the norms, rules and the organizations operating procedures is referred to as programmed decisions while the non-programmed decisions are those that are not managed by any organizational rules, are new and are not structured. In order to solve the organizational problems that occur, managers use their personal intuition and judgment whenever the aim at solving the problems. The efficiency of the organization is increased and its costs reduced through the use of programmed decisions while non-programmed decisions play an important role when it comes to managing and adapting the ever changing environment. There are two broad categories of decision making models. These are the traditional models which illustrate the process of decision making as a rational process while the newer models illustrate decision making as inherently uncertain. The rational model process recommends that there are three stages involved in decision making process. The first step entails the identification of the problem where the environment is analyzed, and the threats and opportunities are recognized. The second step involves the generation of alternatives where opportunities and threats are responded to through the skills analyzed by the managers. The third step in the rational model involves the selection of the best solution by the managers particularly if uncertainty does not exist. The rational model assumption is described as rather unrealistic because managers do not necessarily have the ability of making the right decision and in the process maximize the stakeholders value. The more recent models involve the Carnegie model satisficing where the managers determine evaluation criteria for the solution as well as the limiting the alternative range. The advantages of the procsses involved in this model is that it is less costly and involves less work when compared to the detailed searching that is accompanied by the bounded rationality. The managers are not restricted in this model and their ability to process information is not limited. The Carnegie model on the other hand involves several disadvantages which include the managers not having sufficient information on all possible organizational alternatives that are involved. The dominant coalition also must be approved by the dominant coalition and changes overtime due to a change in the interest rates and in turn influence the change decision making. It is more accurate than the rational model since goals are met by the good solution got by the managers. The second model on the recent categories is the Incrementalist Model. This model suggests that in order to reduce risks, managers are bound to choose actions that are close to the past. The advantage with this model is that it gives managers the avenue of avoiding and correcting mistakes. This is made possible by simply preventing the evaluation of all the alternatives before selecting the appropriate one by the making of an incremental changes sequence. The main disadvantage with this model is that managers can mistakenly choose to use actions that can not bring the expected results. This model is also only suitable for stable environments but its responses turns out to be slower in a dynamic environment and hence results to organizational decline. The third model of the recent categories of organizational decision making process is the unstructured model. This model was developed by Henry Mintzberg and involves making of organizational decisions under very high circumstances of uncertainty. Before the making of a major decision, there is a series of little steps that is followed. The first step involved in this model is the stage of identification where routines for recognition of problems are developed by the managers. The second step in this model is the development stage where problem solving alternatives are developed by the managers. Thee third and the last step in this model is the selection stage. In this stage, the strength of this model is clearly depicted since decisions are made by the manager through the use of intuition, judgment, and formal analysis. The unstructured decision models and is very involving since it requires alternatives of rethinking in the face of obstacles and starting every bit of the process from scratch. The weakness of this model is that the process of making decisions develops in a rather an unpredictable approach. If at all the changing situations are to be responded to, there is great need for the manager to use intuition which generally requires the continuous adaptation. Non-programmed decisions are apparently made by the unstructured model while the programmed decisions happen to be made by the incrementalist model. The most appropriate of the three principal models of the public sector organizational decision making is the Carnegie model. This is because it happens to be less costly and coincidentally involves less work. It also favors the managers as it does not restrict them or limit their ability to process information. This model favors the decisions made under it since it reduces the cases of uncertainty and consequently reduce any chances of failure of the decisions made under it. There is a great possibility of the survival and prosperity of the companies using this model since it promotes the making of the right decisions. It advocates for the learning of new behaviors and doing away with the past and inefficient behaviors thus leads to making of good decisions. Better non-programmed decisions are thus made by the managers through the great assistance by organizational learning. The better understanding of the public sector organizational decision making models and processes is very essential for the success of any organization. Through such understanding organizational effectiveness is enhanced. The organizations that uses the most appropriate of the three principal models gets an upper hand compared to other competitors and hence dominate the market. Buy custom Decision Making Models essay
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Top Ten Words Confused Words [Q-R] Top Ten Words Confused Words [Q-R] Top Ten Words Confused Words [Q-R] By Maeve Maddox My cumulative list of Ã¢â¬Å"words commonly confusedÃ¢â¬ continues with ten that begin with the letters Q and R. The confusion relates to spelling or meaning. 1. quote / quotation Traditionally, quote is a verb and quotation is a noun: May I quote you on that? (verb) I used a quotation from Dr. Johnson as an epigraph. (noun) The Chicago Manual of Style includes a note on these words in the Ã¢â¬Å"Good usage versus common usage section,Ã¢â¬ apparently preferring to preserve the distinction in formal writing. The CMS note also suggests that a difference may exist in the minds of some writers between quote as a noun and quotation as a noun: quotes: contemporary remarks usable in their writing. quotations: wisdom of the ages expressed pithily. 2. quiet / quite This is a spelling problem for speakers who arenÃ¢â¬â¢t in the habit of looking closely at words. Quiet functions as noun, adjective, and verb: In the old days, librarians insisted on absolute quiet from the patrons. (noun) Parents often worry when their children are excessively quiet. (adjective) Susan is known as the quiet sister. (adjective) Please do something to quiet that barking dog. (verb) The most common use of quite is as a synonym for the adverb very: They say that Bill Gates is quite rich. (adverb) 3. reign / rein The noun reign refers to the period of rule of a monarch. The verb reign means to exercise sovereign power or authority. The noun rein refers to a strap, usually of leather, that is used to control a horse. The verb rein means to control a horse. Figuratively, rein means to put a restraint on something. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"to reinÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"rein inÃ¢â¬ oneÃ¢â¬â¢s impulses. The most common confusion between these words is with the idiom Ã¢â¬Å"free rein.Ã¢â¬ The figurative expression derives from horseback riding. To give a horse Ã¢â¬Å"free reinÃ¢â¬ is to hold the reins loosely and allow the horse a certain amount of free movement. 4. raise / raze The verb raise has many meanings, but the meaning in contrast to raze is Ã¢â¬Å"build upÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"construct.Ã¢â¬ The pioneer raised a rudimentary cabin to house his family.Ã¢â¬ The verb raze means Ã¢â¬Å"tear downÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"destroy.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The historic opera house was razed to make room for a parking deck.Ã¢â¬ 5. real / really Common in colloquial speech, real is often substituted for the intensifying adverb really. The adjective real means Ã¢â¬Å"actually existing, not imaginary.Ã¢â¬ This is a real denarius from Roman times. Used as an intensifier, really means very, or thoroughly. Casablanca is a really memorable movie. 6. rebate / refund A rebate is a discount collectible after a purchase. I paid $50 for the headphones, but the rebate was $10, so the final cost was $40. A refund is the full amount of a purchase returned to a customer. The spaghetti-maker didnÃ¢â¬â¢t work, so I asked for a refund. 7. regardless / irregardless The adverb regardless means Ã¢â¬Å"without regard to.Ã¢â¬ Charles intends to buy a herd of llamas, regardless of my objections. The soldier tackled the bomber, regardless of his own safety. Nonstandard irregardless is used by some speakers as either a deliberately humorous portmanteau word or a confused collision of regardless and irrespective. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s a serious use of the word from a community non-profit agency in New Jersey: Schools walk a delicate balance. Some schools that have tried to discipline a student for cyberbullying actions that took place off-campus and outside of school hours have been sued for exceeding their authority and violating the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s free speech right. Irregardless, parents should inform the school if they become aware of any cyberbullying issue. 8. restive / restful Both words are adjectives. Restive means unsettled, restless. Ex. Ã¢â¬Å"Speaking softly, Nancy calmed the restive horse.Ã¢â¬ Restful means Ã¢â¬Å"full of rest.Ã¢â¬ Anything that bestows a feeling of calm and invites relaxation is restful. Ã¢â¬Å"BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËMoonlight SonataÃ¢â¬â¢ is a restful piece.Ã¢â¬ 9. retch / wretch The verb retch may be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"vomiting or trying to.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"She retched driblets of green bile.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The smell of the Dumpster caused him to retch.Ã¢â¬ Wretch is a noun. It can mean Ã¢â¬Å"a pitiable personÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"a vile person.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The poor wretch has lost all in the fire.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Anyone who would deliberately profit from anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s illness is a miserable, rotten wretch.Ã¢â¬ 10. rise / raise Used as verbs, rise and raise are often misused. Rise is intransitive. Ex. Here comes the Judge; all rise! The candidate says those things in the hope that his poll numbers will rise. Raise is transitive. It takes an object. Ex. Let us raise a toast to departed friends. Does anyone wish to raise a question? Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Bare or Bear With Me?Best Websites to Learn English20 Ways to Cry
Sunday, February 16, 2020
The Art of English - Assignment Example ART OF ENGLISH Cognitive and analytical ability is one of the major traits of human beings. Either any literary work or any creative work always tries to convey something. Be it a sculptor, drawing, painting, literary work, news, blogs or even advertisement. In the past, communication used to take place via conventional means such as poetry, novels, short stories, performing or fine arts, sculptors, signs etc. In modern days lots of smart options are available for communication purpose. The creator wants to convey his ideas to the audience. Sometimes the ideas are abstract and subjective. The message in literary work many times contains lot of ambiguity and so the readers or the audience try to find out the meaning as per their comprehension. The poet, painter, artist writer are the people, who always try to live in their own world and generally their creative work does not aim at awakening people, or informing them. Of course some exceptional cases are there. While analysing the work of an artist, one can observe the degree of creativeness and literariness. The creativity can be found both in textual analyses of poetic form as well as in the interactional functions. Ã¢â¬Å"The Art of English: Literary Creativity,Ã¢â¬ creativity is defined as the skill level of the writer in areas such as Ã¢â¬Å"sounds, words, phrases, and overall linguistic formÃ¢â¬ (Goodman & OÃ¢â¬â¢Halloran, 2006) Literariness is associated with different kinds of literature like poetry, short stories, novels etc. These are of course the conventional forms of literature. The modern forms consist of pamphlets, websites, blogs, print media advertising etc. According to the textbook entitled Ã¢â¬Å"The Art of English: Everyday Creativity,Ã¢â¬ in order to perform a complete textual analysis, a linguistic analysis, interactional analysis, and ethnographic analysis are needed (Maybin &Swann, 2006, p.429). Linguistic analysis looks at the individual language elements such as metaphors, word usage, repetition, parallelism, etc., (Maybin &Swann, 2006, p.429). The te xtual analysis of any work consists of some major elements: Analysis of the Rhetorical Context Analysis of Textual features The place of the text in a new context Analysis of the rhetorical context: The poem I chose for this discussion is Ã¢â¬Å"Lady of Shallot,Ã¢â¬ by Alfred Lord Tennyson. This is one of the most appreciated works within the literary world. Alfred Tennyson was born on 6th August 1809 and he was a poet laureate in United Kingdom during the reign of the Queen. He is regarded as one of the most popular poets in English literature. He was also considered as the major representative of Victorian Age. Basically the poem is a piece of literature so the target audience to whom he wants to communicate his ideas through the poem is the specific audience. The poem is not written for everyone, but for the people of literary circle. Analysis of the textual features: Apparently looking it seems to be a tragic story of a lady who had been living in solitude and she had been in carcerated in a castle of Ã¢â¬Å"four gray walls and gray towers.Ã¢â¬ The gray colour itself is associated with the gloomy and sad mood. It represents the gloominess of the ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s life. One can analyse the poem from different perspectives. There is no limit for imaginations while reading and analysing the poem. The readers come to know richness of the poetry in its conceptual implications. The love and freedom of Lady of Shallot resulted into her own destruction. The poem is a journey of a lady from tranquillity to turmoil, sustainability to decay. It is the tragedy of a lady, who initiates a triumphal move to engagement with life. The
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Review of How Does a Poem Mean (1975) by John Ciardi and Miller Williams - Essay Example Learning about music is often considered by the layperson to be little more than learning how to read the notes on a printed page and correlate these to specific buttons, keys or positions upon a particular instrument. Some may also consider that learning about music will include vague discussions of tempo, famous composers or basic trends. For most, this is as far as they are willing to consider and often feel that music, good music, is somehow closed off to them within the meaningless world of academia. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s facts and science-driven world, the approach to music, which is often more attuned to imaginative understanding more than logical knowledge, may indeed be too difficult for many to contemplate. However, there is a means by which individuals might be more smoothly introduced to the world of music by first helping them to understand the more logical and mapped out elements of poetry and then comparing this to music. Such a progression can be discovered through Ciardi and WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢ instructive introduction to poetry followed by SessionsÃ¢â¬â¢ explanation of how to Ã¢â¬ËreadÃ¢â¬â¢ music, concluding with CoplandÃ¢â¬â¢s instruction of how to take what has been read and develop true music appreciation.
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Confucianism Vs Taoism Politics Philosophy Essay Government has such an important impact on societal issues and duties. The United States was constructed from a written constitution thus the formation of our federal government establishment. I look at the constitution as our means for living in a well established society. Many individuals have different beliefs in how a society should be run. Take a look at the ancient Chinese philosophies of Confucianism and Taoism. Each has a different set of standards in their philosophy of life. It is difficult to understand the ethics and politics of Confucianism and Taoism without understanding its philosophy. What if the United States were to take on one of these philosophies? I believe Confucianism would be more widely accepted in our society. We are a nation based more on the concerns dealing with rule and work which is relevant for Confucianisms essence of a structured civilization. The official doctrine in China by the second century B.C.E. was Confucianism. Confucius taught much about political inconstancy as he endured through the downfall of the Zhou dynasty. He had begun teaching at twenty-three years old and we get insightful information about some of his teachings through The Analects. Much of his writing is centered on issues the world with the focal points on family, politics, and modern humanity. Many ideals can be reach as being disciplined leading to virtuous accordance and communal efficiency. The Master said, He who learns but does not think, is lost. He who thinks but does not learn is in great danger. (1595) The first sentence is the true core of knowledge. To fully understand what you have learned, it must be applied thus you are acquiring information. One who does not think may act on impulse. Thinking before you act can lead to gratifying decisions. In a government you need a leader that can focus on a problem and figure out all possible choices that will be beneficial to the society. After the decision is made then it is necessary to take action. We need these ideals for the foundation of a good leader and the individuals as well. If someone just acts on impulse or does nothing, problems will arise either way. If you cannot be evaluating a certain thought, then nothing is gained in retrospect. Our Masters Way is simply this: Loyalty, consideration. (1596) Confucius wanted to convey moral principles to establish a structured society. You yourself desire rank and standing; then help others to get rank and standing. You want to turn your own merits to account; then help others to turn theirs to account- in fact, the ability to take ones own feelings as a guide- that is the sort of thing that lies in direction of Goodness. (1596) A strong leader should be able to take care of his people. In return the people will abide by the rules which will result in a well developed society. Never do to others what you would not like them to do to you. (1597) If we commence this morale rule than it would make sense for people to get along cohesively. No one is ever beneath you so selfishness should be nonexistent. The Master said, A country of a thousand war-chariots cannot be administered unless the ruler attends strictly to business, punctually observes his promises, is economical in expenditure, shows affection towards his subjects in general. (1600) The Master said, Govern the people by regulations, keep order among them by chastisements, and they will flee from you, and lose all self-respect. Govern them by mental force, keep order among them by ritual, and they will keep their self-respect and come to you of their own accord. (1601) A set of laws are instituted and should be followed, but the means of ethics would be followed if they saw their leader to be commendable. There would be an understanding for the governing embodiment concerning stability of virtue between individual and ruler. At the same time the ruler must be applying the example of good virtue. You will get the same respect back in return. Laozi wrote a collection of poems entitled, Dao De Jing. The ideology of Laozi was polar opposite of what we saw from Confucius. Lao Tzu illustrates the meaning of life through Dao which literally means the way. It is based on the individual to move connectively in the eternal flow of life that define the basis of Taoism. Taoism is believed that everything happens naturally in the world, thus human behavior is in correspondence of its nature. The way to improve morality is doing nothing so that nothing is forced. Additionally it is about reaching beyond the sector of the traditional society. A true follower will not be attached to the power and politics of ordinary societal standards. Give up learning and put an end to your troubles. (1607) Hence I know that value of nonaction. Teaching without words and work without doing Are understood by very few. (1609) The farther you go, the less you know. Thus the sage knows without traveling; He sees without looking; He works without doing. (1610) Laozi says that inaction is the way to live in a state of natural harmonious bliss. The Dao states that no one should be conformed to society because we are just free spirits in the universe. We are not tied down to standard living and all expectations should be thrown away. You learn from your sense of self by the force of Yin and Yang. Yin and Yang is the approach of two of something forming to coherence. It is more important To see the simplicity, To realize ones true nature, To cast off selfishness And temper desire. (1607) Laozi wants society to give up materialistic possessions. We are endlessly learning and building upon expectations. The expectations are from our society which creates distress hiding from the greater good of humanity. The American Dream is the success of power and money which many of us chase after. Americans would never be able to give up material possessions. Going with the flow isnt always the best way to lead your life. At some point there will be important decisions that will alter your journey in life. Taoism wants you to sit back and relax, but inactivity can lead to destruction. It is hard to picture a leader in society to just go with the flow in directing his country. Productivity is vital to success. If a war breaks out we need to act quickly for the sake of protecting our people and our future endeavors. Americans are too selfish for Taoism because we have the conception of want embedded in our brain. I think in the sense of traditional American values and being in line with the American Dream, Confucianism would be the more popular philosophy. Ã It stresses themes of dedication to ones duty in life, dedication to ones family, social responsibility, and almost Christian-like themes of helping others and benevolence. Many Americans can learn from the Confucianism philosophy. The ideas we are given from The Analects are structural enough for the foundation of political authority in establishing a society. On the contrary I do believe Taoism offers a counterbalance to the political ideals of Confucianism. Sometimes we get too involved with power which sometimes can lead to destruction when you are not looking out for the people. At the same time Confucianism has a means of higher authority through a set of moral principles. Furthermore our country needs a set of laws that everyone is subject to. Without order chaos will break out with pure insanity. No society will ever be perfect, but we can always be willing to improve our standards of living a better life.
Friday, January 17, 2020
Every country in the world practice their own cultural traditions and norms. Nevertheless, these various cultures are generally characterized as either individualistic or collective. Individualistic culture is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a society in which the ties between individuals are loose and everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and his or her immediate family onlyÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Individualism versus collectivismÃ¢â¬ , n. d. ). On the other hand, a collective society pertains to Ã¢â¬Å"a society in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong cohesive ingroups, which throughout peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyaltyÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Individualism versus collectivismÃ¢â¬ , n. d. ). These kinds of culture would be further elaborated in the duration of this paper. A group of business people coming from two different cultures work together but unfortunately, the project they conducted fails. This failure could be attributed to the fact that they have different beliefs and priorities. As such, they would also have different reactions as to why they did not succeed in this business venture. The ones who came from the individualistic culture would blame themselves and point out that it was their weaknesses and misgivings that cause this downfall. It could also be possible that they would blame their business associates and do all the possible means to protect the assets that they have invested on this project. On the other hand, those business people coming from the collective culture would blame the whole group for their failure. Since it is a group project, their shortcomings as a whole team could be the reason why they failed. Another possible reaction could be that they would propose that they work together to address the problem and to regain what they have lost from this unsuccessful project. Another similar incident personally happen to me in one of the group projects that is required in a course that I took. The professor assigned us to make a resolution regarding the issue of plagiarism. The group have to work together and each person must contribute their ideas on how the problem of plagiarism could be address. However, we were not able to complete a sound resolution due to the lack of group cooperation. This is due to the fact that some of our members did not attend the scheduled meeting, which is why only some of us made the resolution. Our professor gave us a failing mark that resulted for most of the members to blame each other. This attribution clearly shows that most of us came from an individualistic culture because we tend to think of ourselves and our own interest without giving due consideration to the shortcomings of the whole group. In another perspective, if this incident happen from someone coming from a collective culture the failure that took place would be seen as the responsibility of all members. Those who did the resolution also have their misgivings as they fail to remind the other members of the meeting. Furthermore, the lack of cooperation and teamwork of all the members is one of the major factors as to why we get a failing mark. The aforementioned incidents prove that culture has a huge impact in an individual. The behavior as well as the decisions of a person is greatly influence by cultural factors. Reference Individualism versus collectivism. (n. d. ). Retrieved July 29, 2008, from http://www. via-web. de/284. html.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Is Achilles right when, in the Iliad XVIII and subsequently, he bitterly blames himself for the death of Patroklos? The main theme of the poem, which is declared at the very beginning is the Ã¢â¬ËwrathÃ¢â¬â¢ of Achilles. From this we are taken on a journey of human and divine responses. This central theme empowers a magnificently Ã¢â¬Ëarticulated composition out of confusion of battleÃ¢â¬â¢. Events that take place during this journey allow Homer to display and develop, within the social framework of heroic honour, the ideas of conflict, isolation, and reconciliation. Within this essay I will try to address one such consequence, the death of Patroklos, and see who, what or why this death occurred. Several factors need to be addressed inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Whether fate is to be identified with the will of Zeus or whether the will of Zeus is simply an expression of a fate which binds gods and man alike matters little, the result inevitably will be the same, how it reaches this point and who suffers because of it aid this result. But let us not neglect the question of Thetis, with her knowledge of the future could she not have warned Achilles of his friends impending death?, the answer here would have to be not, she is bound up with the human world as the other gods are not and it would have as Taplin points out, Ã¢â¬Ëdestroyed the portrayal of Achilles as humanÃ¢â¬â¢. Patroklos himself, could be suggested was responsible for his own death, he overstepped the mark in terms of AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ warning, Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢t entertain any dreams of fighting on without meÃ¢â¬ (16.89). But essentially here it is not about his illusions of grandeur that are the issue, more why he had to die? This marks two thirds of the way through the poem, two thirds taken up to the anger of Achilles signifying his prolonged rage, this book denotes a change in direction and is also central to the narrative. Patroklos marks the start of the end in terms of Achilles, it could even be suggested that the symbolic wearing of AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ armour is actually meant to represent Achilles himself dieing in the battle, he is never the less fighting for
Wednesday, January 1, 2020
Ancient Native American Traditions The novel Reservation Blues does not describe or deal with real Indians. The real Native Americans were forever destroyed by the government the second that they set foot upon the makeshift reservation. That very second saw the perish of all the age-long values and traditions that, before that moment, defined, raised, and watched over every Indian boy and girl, every Indian husband and wife, and every Indian father and mother. The U.S. government easily and nonviolently accomplished what the army has been struggling to do for many years, it wiped out a whole race of people, turning them into a mindless horde that was of concern to no one. The result were people who were hardly more Indian than youÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Members of the tribe were perfectly happy to finally be rid of their own kind, of the same people who they grew up with, and listened to in awe during the first few practices in the abandoned grocery store. The whole concept of unity on the Spokane reservation c an be summed up in the following quote. Now, I know some of you arent happy with how all this turned out, Big Mom said, but think of poor Joseph Polatkin. Think of how hard these kids worked. Think of your tribal responsibilities. Think of getting them off the goddamn reservation, shouted a voice in the back.(304) Native Americans always had pride. They knew about the ways of the world and about the ways of other cultures, and yet they chose to follow their own rules and customs since the very beginning no matter the interference from others, intentional or unintentional. A real Indian looked upon his tribe with admiration, having pride in belonging to it. The Spokane reservation was the complete opposite. Welcome to Wellpinit, Population: Variable.(3) People left that reservation regularly for the promise of a better life, the life of white people. They no longer were content with their Indian existence, and wanted everything the white man had. Possessions were no longer for the benefit of the tribe, but trophies of the persons prosperity. Dreams of money had taken hold of the whole tribe. The tribe had installed aShow MoreRelatedAncient Burial Grounds of Hawaii800 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAncient Burial Grounds of Hawaii In recent years, ancient burial grounds have been frequently disturbed due to increasing surveillance by anthropologists and constructed on by state-of-the-art technology and are more critically protected than ever before. Understanding the importance of burial grounds gives an insight on the rich history of ancient Hawaii. They have influenced the burials performed, ancestors and their modern inhabitants, and how they have impacted modern Hawaii. Burial methodsRead MoreAnalysis : Bless Me, Ultima 1488 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescivilization of the American people as well as the intellectual traditions need to be in connection. There have been a few moments in modern literature on culture and ancient Hispanic culture, that argue and show the need for general indigenous beliefs through interrelations of the sources of life itself. This paper seeks to analyze the poetic coverage of the history of early indigenous culture in Bless Me, Ultima, by showing a detailed comparison of the transit ional experiences of early native people to AntonioRead MoreFlourishing North American Cultures1455 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages2000 years before Europeans began to arrive in the New World, the last era of the pre-Columbian development began. North American cultures such as the Mississippian culture, the Hopewell Tradition, and the Hohokam culture experienced growth and environmental adaptation throughout this era. Major contributions and innovations of Native Americans have developed and been passed on through generations of ancestors. Originating in 700 A.D., the Mississippian culture expanded through the MississippiRead MoreOrson Is The Oldest Human Fossil?928 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJust before Halloween 1938, Orson Welles the American filmmaker, who was to produce and act in the film Citizen Kane (1940), broadcast a radio version of War of the Worlds, the science fiction masterpiece written by H. G. Wells in 1898. This radio drama involved Orson WellesÃ¢â¬â¢s Mercury Theater players, and it purported to report an actual invasion of Martian spacecraft landing at Grovers Mills, New Jersey, a small town near Princeton. The broadcast proved to be extremely realistic, convincing andRead MoreAnalysis Of Laura Gilpin s Life1617 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLaura Gilpin, April 22, 1891 Ã¢â¬â November 30, 1979, was an accomplished American photographer primarily known for her photographs of Native Americans and Southwestern landscapes. She began her photography at an early age, and remained active in the art scene until her death in 1979. Gilpin received her first camera at age twelve, which she used persistently for years into adulthood. The next year, in 1904, Gilpin traveled to visit a dear friend of the family, Laura Perry, a blind woman who alsoRead MoreThe Differences Between Native Americans And Europeans1323 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdisrupted the life of the Natives. The natives had their own culture in America with their own special beliefs. When Europeans arrived they tried to alter the way Native Americans lived their lives to resemble their way of living. The Natives did not respect this because they had previously built a lifestyle in America that they wish not to be transformed. The two cultures had different opinions about government, religion, land, and society. Due to the many differences between the Native and European peopleRead MoreCultural Syncretism1599 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesconcept of cultural syncretism exists when two different cultures combine their ancient beliefs of the past to create new traditions and/or beliefs. There are several cultural factors that influenced both Africa and the Americas such as weaponry, technological advancements, medical and religious. China and IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s values were quite different when it came to cultural beliefs. They would isolate themselves from outside traditions, which made them more resistant to syncretism. Cultural Syncretism SyncretismRead More Understanding The House Made of Dawn by Scott Momaday Essay1255 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesUnderstanding The House Made of Dawn by Scott Momaday Ã Ã Ã Ã In 1969, N. Scott Momaday became the first Native American to win the Pulitzer Prize in the area of Letters, Drama, and Music for best Fiction.Ã As Schubnell relates in N. Scott Momaday: The Cultural and Literary Background, Momaday initially could not believe that he had won a prize for a work that began as a poem (93).Ã Schubnell cites one juror who explains his reasoning for selecting House Made of Dawn as being the works eloquenceRead MoreNative American Religion : Medicine And Spiritual Healing1694 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesErika Lenis-Abril REL-337 5/10/2015 Native American Religion: Medicine and Spiritual Healing Native American traditional medicine and spiritual healing rituals go back for thousands of years, these traditions often focus on different variations of alternative medicine. This knowledge is passed on throughout generations, many of the tribes learn that by mixing natural plants such as herbs and roots they can make remedies with healing properties. It is believed that being healthy is when peopleRead MoreEssay on Native American Tradition and Religion1319 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshabitats in North America, different native religions evolved to match the needs and lifestyles of the individual tribe. Religious traditions of aboriginal peoples around the world tend to be heavily influenced by their methods of acquiring food, whether by hunting wild animals or by agriculture. Native American spirituality is no exception. Traditional Lakota spirituality is a form of religious belief that each thing, plant and animal has a spirit. The Native American spirituality has an inseparable